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Improving Smoke Extraction in one of the Largest Cylinder Head Foundries in Central Europe – Part 2.

In the previous part I showed how the simulation of the original smoke extraction system of the casting machine that produced many hundreds of cylinder head castings was made. In that simulation, which represented the first step of the development project, the characteristic, time dependent pattern of smoke generation was created and validated against  the real life operation of the machines. The thick white smoke the casting assembly emits has to be handled by an extraction system which is conn...
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Improving Smoke Extraction in one of the Largest Cylinder Head Foundries in Central Europe – Part 1.

We have already published a case study of the CFD simulation of propagation of airborne pollutants, in which we investigated spreading of carbon dioxide in a chemical plant. Emitting CO2 was part of the technology and happened 50m above ground level, but during the operation of industrial plants, unwanted substances are sometimes released much closer to the operators handling the machines. This includes propagation of dust and smoke generated in many ways, but the leakage of harmful gases fro...
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Simulation of Furnace Wall Erosion

During the past 12 years I had the chance to look into several different types of furnaces, but the most impressive and most terrifying certainly was the sight of a glass melting furnace. This furnace was examined to determine factors that influence erosion of the refractory in contact with molten glass. Looking into the furnace while 10m long flames were roaring above the pool of molten glass I thought hell could look just like it. I do not know what kind of refractory materials are used in ...
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Cell Development for a Centrifugal Partition Chromatography Machine

I surely said this before but if you are so fortunate to do fluid dynamics simulations as your profession you can always learn something new. Controlled cooling of cylinder head castings after solidification? Sounds cool! Simulation of wall erosion in a glass melting furnace? Exciting! Simulation of 2-phase flow within a Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) machine and design of a new cell shape? The mother of all simulations, though I never saw such a machine before and I just guessed how...
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Improving Cleaning of Machined Cylinder Head Castings – Part 2.

In the previous part I wrote about how effective and flexible meshing had been with SC/Tetra when simulating many extraction head versions for the cylinder head vacuum-cleaner. When I wanted to analyse a new extraction head I only had to change and remesh that specific part and attach it to the main mesh again and push GO button. Since the whole simulation domain contained 11 million elements – 6.6 million was the casting alone – this meshing method resulted significant reduction of meshing t...
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Improving Cleaning of Machined Cylinder Head Castings – Part 1.

The simulation of metal chip removal with compressed air carried out successfully in 2013 continued in 2014 with new challenges. The results of simulations made in 2013 have been producing profit for the engine manufacturer in every single second of production time since then. In this new phase of the project cleaning performance was further improved. But what kind of new challenges could come after a successfully completed simulation job? The project in 2013 was about reducing the usage of c...
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Riding the Waves: Free Surface and Motion Simulation

Ships are somehow special. They have an aura only a large vehicle has. It's not like a car  you jump in and the interior can be assessed in a twinkling of an eye. A big ship is different. You need to rove, you need to know every corner and passage or even find your way out if your are lost. If you have ever been on board of a big ship, especially on board of an old warship and touched by the spirit of the place, you know what I mean. Some of these ships were floating cities, home of 1,000 men fo...
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Cleaning Machined Automotive Parts with High-pressure Air

I am definite that the project this application example was written about has been the greatest challenge I have faced so far in my professional life as a CFD guy. It was about the CFD simulation of the cleaning process of cylinder head castings with high pressure air. What is so challenging in that you may ask? Everithing. Let me describe. The situation – of course without names and real life data – is the following. Cylinder head castings go through several manufacturing phases before th...
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PAZFLOR Project: Top Urgent and Top Secret

It was on a hot day in July 2008 when at 10:42pm I got the first message with the subject "Top urgent, top secret". Let me tell you a five day long story of competing against time and a sales person that handled facts rather flexibly. It was many years ago when we were assigned to determine the pressure loss of two seawater suction lines. The flexible hoses were 100 meters long each, they had steel fittings on both ends. Where do you think one needs 100 meter long hoses for which the pressure...
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How to Simplify the CAD Geometry of an In-line Six-cylinder Engine?

My favourite trick was back at the university when the professor during fluid dynamics lectures (but you can play the same game with maths of structural mechanics) came up with a really-really long and complex equation, then he applied some conditions (saying for example that one or two parameters are neglectable compared to the others) and elegantly scored out 80% of the equation. From then on it could be solved easily. What should a CFD guy do if the geometry that he is about to use for a simu...
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A Short Guide To Fan CFD Simulations

A couple of years ago I had the chance to work together on a project with CFD specialists of one of the top fan manufacturing companies in the world. Based on what I had learnt from running a benchmark project I made a short summary of the most important guidelines how the professionals run CFD simulations of fans for HVAC and automotive applications. 1. Simulation of rotating motion. It is not usual to simulate the real rotating motion, later you will see why. For most of the cases where flo...
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People Behind Inventions: The Gun

It has been quite a while now when the „Inventions that changed the world” series on BBC was first aired about the engineering achievements that shaped our modern world. Created by and starring Jeremy Clarkson this five episode series is one of my personal favourites and not just because the marvels of engineering but because of the people behind those inventions. Here comes a little introduction to the first episode. The five inventions presented were the gun, the computer, the jet engine, t...
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Thermal Model of the Human Body for Automotive Applications

Developers of SC/Tetra, one of the CFD codes we use to solve complex fluid flow and thermal management challenges have gone quite far in terms of accurately simulating thermal behaviour of the human body. This modeling environment is called JOS (Joint System Thermoregulation) and it is designed to provide top-notch human body thermal modeling in environments like a car or bus or the passenger area of an airplane. Development of JOS was motivated by the ever increasing need for more efficient ...
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Controlled Cooling of Automotive Castings

Did you know that thermal management of a cylinder head had started way before it was bolted on your engine block? It was the single most important 90 minutes of its service life. It first happened when the cylinder head casting emerged from the die freshly cast, still liquid behind the thin solid outer layer of aluminium. This article is tells how Computational Fluid Dynamics plays a defining part of that first, 90 minute long controlled cooling process. From heat transfer viewpoint we face ...
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Simulation of Carbon-Dioxide Spreading in a Chemical Factory

In 2012 we received an interesting fluid flow and heat transfer simulation job: a silencer had to be installed on a carbon-dioxide exhaust point of a huge chemical factory, and within this project we were asked to simulate CO2 propagation in the atmosphere of the ammonia works. But how can the area of a whole factory be modeled? Obviously we had to simplify since the smallest area to be analysed in terms of CO2 concentration was 515 by 565 metres. This part of the factory is packed with stora...
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Free Surface CFD Simulation in a Turbo Mixer

I had the chance some weeks ago to spend a day at the site of one of our SC/Tetra users. They showed me a small mixer in their lab on which they make some demonstrations and test measurements for their students. They also created a CFD simulation to model the mixing process and because it was so interesting, I got inspired to build a mixer simulation with an other geometry. The aim was just to play with it a little bit and to show what interesting features such a mixer had. This mixer contain...
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Water Hammer: Pressure Wave Propagation in Pipes

This information video shows the CFD simulation of an interesting physical phenomenon: the pressure wave propagation in pipes or in other words the water hammer effect. There are two examples shown in the video. The first is a simple pipe, the second one is a bit more complex because there are junctions in the pipeline which have important effect on the pressure wave. This application example was one of the firsts I uploaded to YouTube, almost 9 years ago, It's been quite a while now but stil...
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Exhibiting at the Engineering Simulation Show in Derby

The world's first and still existing roundhouse was the home of engineering simulation for two days on 15th - 16th April 2015 in Derby, UK, where in cooperation with CRADLE Europe Flow Computing Technologies manned one of the stands. I would like to highlight two interesting things from the massive load of engineering simulation stuff. The first is that several companies exhibited impressive applications of virtual reality. At one for the stands a student just checked the virtual cockpit o...
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Cars of the Advanced Engineering UK 2013 Show

What is the majority of development efforts in automotive industry about? Besides making a car a communication centre and internet café rather than source of enjoyment, since mobile phones are developed faster than car dashboards everything is about being green. Luckily there are still some exceptions.  This is what we experienced in Birmingham at the Advanced Engineering UK at the end of 2013. The problem of being greener can be managed on many different ways. Starting from the truly fantast...
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